Sodium hypophosphite is an inorganic salt with the chemical formula NaH2PO2, monoclinic crystal or pearly crystal or white crystalline powder.
It is easily soluble in water, ethanol, glycerin, slightly soluble in ammonia, ammonia water, and insoluble in ether.
Sodium Hypophosphite is neutral in aqueous solution and has strong reducing properties.
Sodium Hypophosphite is relatively stable when stored in a dry state, and rapidly decomposes when heated above 200°C, releasing toxic phosphine that can ignite spontaneously.
It will explode when exposed to strong heat, and will explode when mixed with potassium chlorate or other oxidants.
Sodium hypophosphite is a strong reducing agent, which can reduce the salts of gold, silver, mercury, nickel, chromium, diamond, etc. to a metallic state.
Used as an electroless plating agent
Used as antiseptic and fresh-keeping agent
For sodium hypophosphite reduction electroless copper plating and other electroless copper plating processes, they have the same chemical principle.
Its essence is also an electroless copper plating method to reduce the free copper ions in the copper plating solution to solid copper crystals and plate them on the surface of the substrate with the help of a suitable reducing agent.
Nowadays, the electroless copper plating process for sodium hypophosphite reduction is very similar to the electroless copper plating process for formaldehyde reduction, but the reaction mechanism is much more complicated.
This is because pure metallic copper has no catalytic activity for the oxidation reaction of sodium hypophosphite.
When using it as a reducing agent for electroless copper plating, it cannot achieve an autocatalytic electroless plating reaction through the copper particles and silver particles produced in the activation and sensitization stages like the formaldehyde system.
To make the electroless copper plating reaction of the sodium hypophosphite system continue, it is necessary to add a substance with catalytic activity for the electroless plating reaction.
The current way to solve this technical problem is to learn from the process principle of electroless nickel plating.
Nickel ions are added to the plating solution, and a copper plating layer containing a small amount of nickel is obtained through the co-deposition of metallic nickel and copper.
The deposited nickel particles can catalyze the reaction of sodium hypophosphite reducing Cu2+, so as to ensure the continuous progress of the electroless copper plating reaction, and finally obtain a high-quality copper coating.
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