Sodium hydroxide: The chemical formula is NaOH, commonly known as caustic soda, caustic soda, flake soda, caustic soda (also known as “Koshi’s” in Hong Kong), and is a highly corrosive strong alkali.
Sodium hydroxide is actually a salt, because it undergoes hydrolysis in water to make the solution alkaline, and because it has some similar properties to caustic soda, it is side by side with caustic soda, and is called “two alkalis” in industry.
Sodium Hydroxide is generally in the form of white flakes or granules. It is easily soluble in water and forms an alkaline solution, which can enhance the conductivity of water.
The industrial product contains a small amount of sodium chloride and sodium carbonate, which is a white opaque solid.
The impurities contained in sodium hydroxide usually include iron, sodium chloride, silicate, carbonate, etc.
NaOH is one of the necessary chemicals in chemical laboratories, and it is also one of the common chemicals.
Sodium Hydroxide is a basic chemical raw material, so sodium hydroxide has a wide variety of uses.
It is utilized as a high-purity reagent and is commonly made use of in chemical, metallurgy, paper, oil, fabric and daily chemical markets.
In chemical experiments, along with being made use of as a reagent, it can likewise be used as an alkaline desiccant because of its strong hygroscopicity.
The sector that uses the most caustic soda is the manufacture of chemicals, followed by the manufacture of paper, aluminum, tungsten, rayon, rayon and soap.
In addition, in the production of dyes, plastics, pharmaceuticals and organic intermediates, the regeneration of old rubber, the production of sodium metal, the electrolysis of water and the production of inorganic salts, the production of borax, chromium salts, manganates, phosphates, etc., should also be used. Lots of caustic soda.
Sodium hydroxide can undergo acid-base neutralization reaction with any protonic acid (NaOH dissolved in water will completely dissociate into sodium ions and hydroxide ions, so it has the generality of alkali):
NaOH + HCl = NaCl + H₂O (metathesis reaction)
2NaOH + H₂SO₄=Na₂SO₄+2H₂O (metathesis reaction)
NaOH + HNO₃=NaNO₃+H₂O (metathesis reaction)
Similarly, its solution can undergo metathesis reaction with salt solution:
NaOH + NH₄Cl = NaCl + NH₃ H₂O
2NaOH + CuSO₄= Cu(OH)₂↓+ Na₂SO₄
In many organic reactions, sodium hydroxide also plays a similar role as a catalyst, of which the most representative is the saponification reaction:
RCOOR’ + NaOH = RCOONa + R’OH
The reason why sodium hydroxide is easy to deteriorate in the air is because the air contains carbon dioxide:
2NaOH + CO₂ = Na₂CO₃ + H₂O
If excess carbon dioxide is continuously introduced, sodium bicarbonate, commonly known as baking soda, will be formed. The reaction equation is as follows:
Na₂CO₃ + CO₂ + H₂O = 2NaHCO₃
Likewise, sodium hydroxide can react with acidic oxides like sulfur dioxide as follows:
2NaOH + SiO₂ = Na₂SiO₃ + H₂O
2NaOH + SO₂ (trace) = Na₂SO₃ + H₂O
NaOH + SO₂ (excess) = NaHSO₃ (formed Na₂SO₃ and water react with excess SO₂ to form NaHSO₃)
It reacts with the indicator:
Sodium hydroxide solution usually turns litmus solution blue and phenolphthalein solution red.
Sodium hydroxide is slightly corrosive to glass products, and the two will generate sodium silicate, which makes the piston in the glass instrument stick to the instrument. If the hot NaOH solution is kept in a glass container for a long time, the glass container will be damaged.
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