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Dichloromethane is a compound formed by replacing two hydrogen atoms in the methane molecule with chlorine, with the molecular formula CH2Cl2. It is a colorless, transparent, heavier than water, volatile liquid with an ether-like odor and sweetness. It does not burn, but it forms an explosive mixture when mixed with a high concentration of oxygen.
Dichloromethane is slightly soluble in water, miscible with most common organic solvents, and also miscible with other chlorine-containing solvents, ether, ethanol and N,N-dimethylformamide in any proportion. Dichloromethane is insoluble in liquid ammonia at room temperature, and can be quickly dissolved in phenol, aldehyde, ketone, glacial acetic acid, triethyl phosphate, formamide, cyclohexylamine, and ethyl acetoacetate.
Pure methylene chloride has no flash point, and the solvent mixture containing equal volume of methylene chloride and gasoline, solvent naphtha or toluene is not flammable. When its vapor becomes high concentration in high temperature air, it will generate a weakly flammable mixture Gas, often used to replace flammable petroleum ether, ether, etc.
Dichloromethane has a low boiling point, has anesthetic effects, and mainly damages the central nervous system and respiratory system. And can be used as dental local anesthetic, refrigerant and fire extinguishing agent. However, the product has certain side effects, such as:
Short-term inhalation of higher concentrations of Dichloromethane may cause dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, numbness of hands and feet, fatigue, decreased coordination, and eye and upper respiratory tract irritation. Exposure to high concentrations may cause ataxia, loss of consciousness, and even death.
Solvent is the most important use of dichloromethane. Dichloromethane (DCM) has the advantages of strong dissolving ability and low toxicity, and is widely used in the manufacture of safety film films, polycarbonate, and the rest are used as paint solvent, metal degreaser, aerosol propellant, polyurethane foaming agent, mold release agent, paint remover.
Dichloromethane is a colorless liquid and is used as a reaction medium in the pharmaceutical industry for the preparation of ampicillin, oxybenicillin and cephalosporin. It is also used as solvent in film production, petroleum dewaxing solvent, aerosol propellant, organic synthesis extractant, foaming agent and metal cleaning agent for the production of foamed plastics such as polyurethane.
In addition, methylene chloride is also widely used as cellulose acetate film forming, cellulose triacetate spinning, petroleum dewaxing, aerosol and solvent in the production of antibiotics, vitamins, steroids, and metal surface paint cleaning Degreasing and film release agent.
Dichloromethane is also used in grain fumigation and the refrigeration of low-pressure freezers and air-conditioning units. It is used as an auxiliary blowing agent in the production of polyether urethane foam and as a blowing agent for extruded polysulfone foam.
Dichloromethane is also used as a refrigerant in industrial refrigeration systems, but it is very harmful, and can produce highly toxic phosgene when it comes into contact with open flames or hot objects. In case of humid air, it can be hydrolyzed to generate a small amount of hydrogen chloride, and light can also promote hydrolysis and increase the corrosiveness to metals.
Dichloromethane is also the substance used to make decaffeinated coffee. The coffee is first boiled to dissolve the caffeine and float to the surface, and then methylene chloride is used to remove the caffeine.
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