Caffeic acid, also known as 3,4‑dihydroxy‑cinnamic acid, is an organic acid that is a yellow crystal obtained from a concentrated aqueous solution and a monohydrate obtained from a dilute aqueous solution.
Decomposition point 223～225° (softening at 194°), slightly soluble in cold water, easily soluble in hot water and cold ethanol.
It is a yellow-white crystal at room temperature, has a wide range of antibacterial and antiviral activities, and can absorb ultraviolet rays.
Caffeic acid is widely distributed in various traditional Chinese medicine plants such as Yinchen, artichoke, honeysuckle, etc., and belongs to phenolic acid compounds.
In the natural environment, caffeic acid can be found in the bark of Eucalyptus globulus, as well as in the freshwater fern Sophora japonica or in the mushroom Phellinus chinensis.
In food, caffeic acid is present in coffee, one of the main natural phenols in nut oils, and also in barley grains.
Caffeic acid is often used as an intermediate in organic synthesis.
Caffeic Acid can be used safely in cosmetics and has broad antibacterial and antiviral activities, but can be inactivated by proteins in the body.
In vitro tests showed that Caffeic Acid had antiviral activity, and had a strong inhibitory effect on vaccinia and adenovirus, followed by polio type I and parainfluenza type III viruses.
A low concentration is an adjuvant that inhibits skin-type hair dyes, which is beneficial to enhance the intensity of the color.
It also has pharmacological effects such as cardiovascular protection, anti-mutagenic anti-cancer, anti-bacterial and anti-viral, lipid-lowering and hypoglycemic, anti-leukemia, immune regulation, choleretic hemostasis and anti-oxidation.
Caffeic acid has also shown immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities, and caffeic acid can reduce aflatoxin production by more than 95%, outperforming other antioxidants.
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