Plant polysaccharides, also known as plant polysaccharides, are natural major molecules formed by the polymerization of more than 10 monosaccharides through glycosidized bonds. Their relative molecular weight can reach tens of thousands or even millions, and they are widely found in plants in nature, including starch, cellulose, polysaccharides, pectin, etc. It is one of the four basic substances that constitute life, and it is also an important biomacromolecule in organism. In recent years, with the development of glycobiology and glycoomics, more and more sugars have been found to enhance the body immunity, anti-inflammation, anti-fatigue, hypoglycemia, hypolipidemia, anti-tumor, antivirus and other effects.
1. Anti-tumor effect
Polysaccharides have anti-tumor activity, not directly kill tumor cells, but activate the body’s immune system, improve the body’s immunity. Polysaccharides, such as lentinan and lycium barbarum polysaccharide, can enhance immunity and play anti-cancer functions by activating macrophages or increasing their phagocytosis ability and enhancing delayed hypersensitivity reaction. The anti-tumor activity and abundant sources of polysaccharides make their application in tumor therapy a research field worthy of further exploration.
2. Hypoglycemic effect
Polysaccharides can effectively repair and protect pancreatic islet cells, effectively prevent and treat diabetes by affecting the activity of glucose metabolism enzymes, increasing insulin secretion, inhibiting gluconeogenesis to reduce blood glucose level, promoting the use of glucose to change glucose metabolism disorders. Polysaccharide can also reduce the cholesterol and triacylglycerol content in the blood to reduce blood lipids, reduce the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, is an excellent regulator for “three high” people.
3, anti-aging effect
Some polysaccharides have anti-aging effects. On the one hand, these polysaccharides can be used as immunomodulators to enhance the immune function of the body; on the other hand, they can inhibit the generation of free radicals in the body or directly remove free radicals, promote the release of superoxide dismutase S0D, improve the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and thus enhance physical strength and delay aging.
4. Anti-radiation effect
Studies have shown that TCM polysaccharides also have a certain anti-radiation effect, which can effectively reduce the damage of radiation to the body by repairing damaged hematopoietic tissue, enhancing the immune function of the body and scavenging free radicals. Chinese wolfberry, tremella fungus, cloud lucidum polysaccharide has a very good anti-radiation effect.
5. Other activities
Polysaccharide has many biological activities, in addition to the above biological activities, there are anti-radiation, digestion, anti-ulcer, anti-allergy, endocrine regulation, gland hyperplasia, diuretic, antiasthmatic and other active functions. Some polysaccharides also have antibacterial and promote the biosynthesis of nucleic acids and proteins.
In recent years, with the continuous improvement of living standards, people’s awareness of health care has been gradually enhanced. Polysaccharide as the main component of health food has been quietly rising. China is rich in polysaccharide resources, especially the plant polysaccharide from Chinese herbal medicine, which has a long history of application and has a great development prospect. It is the development direction of plant polysaccharide research to use advanced science and technology and means to study the traditional theory of China and to provide the basis for modern biological experiments.