In the notice of “Guidelines for Personal Protection of On-site Disinfectants for Pneumonia Infected by New Coronavirus in Shandong Province (Second Edition)”, it is specified that quaternary ammonium salt disinfectants are preferred for metal pipe walls and quaternary ammonium salt disinfectants are preferred for reusable components.
1) Early studies have shown that this type of disinfectant can effectively kill a variety of coronaviruses.
①Rabenau et al. tested the killing effect of two surface disinfectant products with benzalkonium chloride as the main component on SARS coronavirus, and the results showed that it was effective against SARS virus, and reached the maximum effect within 5 minutes. The effect is similar to other commonly used surface disinfectants.
②Motoharu et al. tested the effects of benzalkonium chloride on influenza virus, NewCastle virus and avian bronchial coronavirus, and found that benzalkonium chloride can effectively kill these viruses, and the effect is equivalent to sodium hypochlorite.
③As a cationic surfactant, benzalkonium chloride has a good killing effect on lipophilic viruses with a lipid envelope. Many viruses, including those belonging to the coronavirus family, belong to lipophilic with a lipid outer membrane virus.
The mechanism is similar to the antibacterial mechanism of benzalkonium chloride. The hydrophobic group is inserted into the lipid layer. On the one hand, it changes the pH value inside and outside the membrane and destroys the stability of the membrane. On the other hand, it combines with and destroys the membrane and key virus structures in the membrane, resulting in viral nucleic acid. The substance was exposed and leaked and died.
2) As a cationic surfactant, benzalkonium chloride has an adsorption effect on virus shells with more negative charges, which is beneficial to virus removal.
3) In addition, benzalkonium chloride can effectively broad-spectrum bactericidal and antibacterial.
4) Benzalkonium chloride is safe to use, non-irritating, non-sensitizing, non-teratogenic, etc.
5) Benzalkonium chloride has a wide range of uses, especially suitable for disinfection of intact skin, skin and mucous membranes, and metal surface disinfection. Therefore, it is widely used in various hospitals and can also be kept at home for disinfection.
Disable use with caution
1 It is certain that patients with glaucoma, dry eye syndrome, infections, and iritis used too much eye drops containing benzalkonium chloride, and the time was long enough to cause damage. Their endothelial damage, epithelial edema, and bullous keratopathy have a higher incidence, and the severity of these diseases makes other minor risks negligible. This is especially true for patients with epithelial defects or corneal ulcers.
2 During treatment, use sodium chloride, magnesium sulfate, mild soap and other solutions to prevent misuse of the topical area as soon as possible. Timely anti-inflammatory and anti-toxic treatment with appropriate corticosteroids after absorption can reduce symptoms and shorten the course of the disease.
It is forbidden to use with soap and salt disinfectants. Not suitable for disinfection of cystoscopes, ophthalmic instruments and synthetic rubber products.
3 Use with caution in the following situations.
① Cardiovascular diseases, including patients with angina pectoris, arteriosclerosis, coronary artery disease, hypertension, and myocardial infarction
② Patients with long-term and severe hypothyroidism or myxedema should be cautious when using this type of drug.
③ For patients with hypopituitarism or adrenal cortex insufficiency, first administer corticosteroids to patients with adrenocortical insufficiency, and then administer this class of drugs after the adrenocortical function is restored to normal. In patients with heart disease and chronic hypothyroidism, the use of benzalkonium chloride replacement therapy is more risky, and adrenal insufficiency is often associated with hypothyroidism.